Introduction In patients with mitral annular disjunction (MAD), it can be difficult to assess the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR), as they present with a prolapsing volume (i.e. volume resulting from mitral valve prolapse, blood volume shift) rather than a regurgitant jet. The influence of the mitral prolapsing volume (MPV) on cardiac dimensions is unknown. We hypothesised that the severity of MR is underestimated in these patients. Our aim was to measure MPV and to investigate its influence on cardiac dimensions in patients with MAD. Methods We retrospectively included 131 consecutive patients with MAD from our institution's echocardiographic database. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to assess MPV. Additionally, we established a control group of 617 consecutive patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and performed propensity score matching. Results Median MPV in the MAD group was 12 ml. MPV was an independent predictor for left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic diameter (LVESD) and left atrial volume (all p < 0.001). In patients with large prolapsing volumes (> 15 ml), LVEDD (56 +/- 6 mm vs 51 +/- 6 mm, p < 0.001), LVESD [38 mm (34-41) vs 34 mm (31-39), p < 0.01] and left atrial volume [105 ml (86-159) vs 101 ml (66-123), p = 0.04] were significantly increased compared to matched patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and similarly assessed severity of MR. Conclusion Due to a volume shift based on the MPV rather than an actual regurgitant jet, MR severity cannot be assessed adequately in MAD patients. Increased MPV induces ventricular and atrial enlargement. These findings warrant future studies to focus on MPV as an additional parameter for assessment of the severity of MR in MAD patients.