Background: Grading and classification of IDH-mutant astrocytomas has shifted from solely histology towards histology combined with molecular diagnostics. In this systematic review, we give an overview of all currently known clinically relevant molecular markers within IDH-mutant astrocytomas grade 2 to 4. Methods: A literature search was performed in five electronic databases for English original papers on patient outcome with respect to a molecular marker as determined by DNA/RNA sequencing, micro-arrays, or DNA methylation profiling in IDH-mutant astrocytomas grade 2 to 4. Papers were included if molecular diagnostics were performed on tumour tissue of at least 15 IDH-mutant astrocytoma patients, and if the investigated molecular markers were not limited to the diagnostic markers MGMT, ATRX, TERT, and/or TP53. Results: The literature search identified 4508 unique articles, published between August 2012 and December 2021, of which ultimately 44 articles were included. Numerous molecular markers from these papers were significantly correlated to patient outcome. The associations between patient outcome and non-canonical IDH mutations, PI3K mutations, high expression of MSH2, high expression of RAD18, homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B, amplification of PDGFRA, copy number neutral loss of chromosomal arm 17p, loss of chromosomal arm 19q, the G-CIMP-low DNA methylation cluster, high total CNV, and high tumour mutation burden were confirmed in multiple studies. Conclusions: Multiple genetic and epigenetic markers are associated with survival in IDH-mutant astrocytoma patients. Commonly affected are the RB signalling pathway, the RTK-PI3K-mTOR signalling pathway, genomic stability markers, and (epigenetic) gene regulation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by a research grant GN-000577 from The Brain Tumour Charity , and grants 10685 and 11026 from the Dutch Cancer Society .
Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s)