More on multidimensional scaling in {R}: smacof version 2

Patrick Mair, Patrick Groenen, Jan De Leeuw

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23 Citations (Scopus)
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The smacof package offers a comprehensive implementation of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques in R. Since its first publication (De Leeuw and Mair 2009b) the functionality of the package has been enhanced, and several additional methods, features and utilities were added. Major updates include a complete re-implementation of multidimensional unfolding allowing for monotone dissimilarity transformations, including row-conditional, circular, and external unfolding. Additionally, the constrained MDS implementation was extended in terms of optimal scaling of the external variables. Further package additions include various tools and functions for goodness-of-fit assessment, unidimensional scaling, gravity MDS, asymmetric MDS, Procrustes, and MDS biplots. All these new package functionalities are illustrated using a variety of real-life applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-47
Number of pages47
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

We would like to thank Ingwer Borg for his contributions to the smacof package and his
critical applied remarks which enhanced the usability of the package, and Frank Busing for
his contributions to the unfolding implementation and the sim2diss function. In addition,
we would like to thank three anonymous reviewers and the associate editor for their helpful

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved.


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