Morphological variants to predict outcome of avascular necrosis in developmental dysplasia of the hip

V. Pollet, J. Bonsel, B. Ganzeboom, R. Sakkers, E. Waarsing

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Abstract

Aims the most important complication of treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (ddh) is avascular necrosis (aVn) of the femoral head, which can result in proximal femoral growth disturbances leading to pain, dysfunction, and eventually to early onset osteoarthritis. in this study, we aimed to identify morphological variants in hip joint development that are predictive of a poor outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients who developed aVn after ddh treatment, either by closed and/or open reduction, at a single institution between 1984 and 2007 with a minimal follow-up of eight years. standard pelvis radiographs obtained at ages one, two, three, five, and eight years, and at latest follow-up were retrieved. The Bucholz-Ogden classification was used to determine the type of AVN on all radiographs. Poor outcome was defined by Severin classification grade 3 or above on the latest follow-up radiographs and/or the need for secondary surgery. With statistical shape modelling, we identified the different shape variants of the hip at each age. logistic regression analysis was used to associate the different modes or shape variants with poor outcome. results In all, 135 patients with AVN were identified, with a minimum of eight years of follow-up. Mean age at time of surgery was 7.0 months (SD 0.45), and mean follow-up was 13.3 years (SD 3.7). Overall, 46% had AVN type 1 while 54% type 2 or higher. More than half of the patients (52.6%) had a poor outcome. We found 11 shape variants that were significantly associated with a poor outcome. these shape variants were predominantly linked to aVn type 2 or higher. Conclusion Specific morphological characteristics on pelvis radiographs of AVN hips were predictive for poor outcome, at a very young age. there was an overall stronger association to Bucholz-Ogden types 2-3-4 with the exception of two modes at age two and five years, linked to aVn type 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)999-1004
Number of pages6
JournalBone and Joint Journal
Volume103 B
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.

Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery

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