Introduction Different multimodal pain management strategies following total hip arthroplasty(THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery are used in clinical practice. The optimal pain management strategy, however, remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the differences in perioperative multimodal pain management strategies for THA and TKA in the Netherlands, and studies the associations between patient- and therapy related factors and pain outcomes. Methods Data from the Dutch hospitals in the PAIN OUT network were used in this study. Demographic data, pain management strategy including perioperative medication use and anesthetic techniques were recorded and used in a multivariable regression analysis to study the association with maximum pain intensity, the duration of severe pain, pain interference in bed and postoperative nausea. Results In 343 hip arthroplasty patients and 301 knee arthroplasty patients in seven hospitals, respectively 28 and 35 different combinations of analgesic regimens were used. The number of different drugs prescribed was not related to postoperative pain intensity. Female sex, younger age and spinal anesthesia were associated with higher postoperative maximum pain scores (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) > 5). Hip surgery and ketamine use were associated with lower postoperative pain scores. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and gabapentinoids, higher age, higher body mass index (BMI) and male gender were associated with less postoperative nausea (NRS < 3). Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated a large diversity of analgesic strategies following total joint arthroplasties in the Netherlands. Although no ideal strategy was identified, the use of NSAIDs, ketamine and dexamethasone were associated with less pain and less side effects.
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