Knowledge of the immunological correlates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization is required for the search for future protein vaccines. We evaluated natural antibody levels against pneumococcal and staphylococcal proteins in relation to previous bacterial colonization with both pathogens. In a randomized controlled trial, nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from children at 1.5, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and cultured for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Approximately 50% of the children were PCV7 vaccinated. Serum IgG against 18 pneumococcal and 40 staphylococcal proteins was semiquantified by Luminex technology from 111 12 month olds and 158 24 month olds. Previous culture-proven S. aureus colonization was associated with higher IgG levels against 6/40 staphylococcal proteins (ClfB, ClfA, Efb, CHIPS, LukD, and LukF [P <= 0.001]) compared to noncarriers. Previous pneumococcal colonization was associated with increased IgG levels against 12/18 pneumococcal proteins compared to noncarriers (P <= 0.003). Increasing age was associated with higher levels of antibodies to most pneumococcal proteins and lower levels of antibodies to over half the staphylococcal proteins, reflecting natural colonization dynamics. Anti-S. pneumoniae and anti-S. aureus protein antibodies at the age of 12 months were not negatively correlated with subsequent colonization with the homologous species in the following year and did not differ between PCV7-vaccinated and nonvaccinated children. Colonization with S. aureus and S. pneumoniae induces serum IgG against many proteins, predominantly proteins with immune-modulating functions, irrespective of PCV7 vaccination. None of them appeared to be protective against new acquisition with both pathogens, possibly due to the polymorphic nature of those proteins in the circulating bacterial population.