New Developments in Carbonic Anhydrase IX-Targeted Fluorescence and Nuclear Imaging Agents

Kuo Ting Chen*, Yann Seimbille

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a tumor-specific and hypoxia-induced biomarker for the molecular imaging of solid malignancies. The nuclear-and optical-imaging of CAIX-expressing tumors have received great attention due to their potential for clinical applications. Nuclear imaging is a powerful tool for the non-invasive diagnosis of primary and metastatic CAIX-positive tumors and for the assessment of responses to antineoplastic treatment. Intraoperative optical fluorescence imaging provides improved visualization for surgeons to increase the discrimination of tumor lesions, allowing for safer surgical treatment. Over the past decades, many CAIX-targeted molecular imaging probes, based on monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and small molecules, have been reported. In this review, we outline the recent development of CAIX-targeted probes for singlephoton emission computerized tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF), and we discuss issues yet to be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6125
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST110-2113-M-259-001-MY2).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


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