Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a tumor-specific and hypoxia-induced biomarker for the molecular imaging of solid malignancies. The nuclear-and optical-imaging of CAIX-expressing tumors have received great attention due to their potential for clinical applications. Nuclear imaging is a powerful tool for the non-invasive diagnosis of primary and metastatic CAIX-positive tumors and for the assessment of responses to antineoplastic treatment. Intraoperative optical fluorescence imaging provides improved visualization for surgeons to increase the discrimination of tumor lesions, allowing for safer surgical treatment. Over the past decades, many CAIX-targeted molecular imaging probes, based on monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and small molecules, have been reported. In this review, we outline the recent development of CAIX-targeted probes for singlephoton emission computerized tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF), and we discuss issues yet to be addressed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST110-2113-M-259-001-MY2).
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