New Directions in Imaging Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

Julie Refardt, Johannes Hofland, Damian Wild, Emanuel Christ*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose of Review: Accurate imaging is crucial for correct diagnosis, staging, and therapy of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). The search for the optimal imaging technique has triggered rapid development in the field. This review aims at giving an overview on contemporary imaging methods and providing an outlook on current progresses. Recent Findings: The discovery of molecular targets due to the overexpression of specific peptide hormone receptors on the NEN’s surface has triggered the development of multiple radionuclide imaging modalities. In addition to the established imaging technique of targeting somatostatin receptors, several alternative radioligands have been developed. Targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor by exendin-4 has a high sensitivity in localizing insulinomas. For dedifferentiated NENs, new molecular targets such as the C-X-C motif chemokine-receptor-4 have been evaluated. Other new targets involve the fibroblast activation protein and the cholecystokinin-2 receptors, where the ligand minigastrin opens new possibilities for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Summary: Molecular imaging is an emerging field that improves the management of NENs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number143
JournalCurrent Oncology Reports
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 4 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Prof. Christ was support by two grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF): SNF320030_175544 and SNF320030_152938.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


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