Background and aims: Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by deficiency of 27-sterol hydroxylase -encoded by CYP27A1- leading to gastrointestinal and progressive neuropsychiatric symptoms. Biochemically, CTX is characterized by accumulation of the bile alcohol cholestanetetrol glucuronide (GlcA-tetrol) and the deficiency of tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (t-CDCA) and tauro-trihydroxycholestanoic acid (t-THCA). Materials and Methods: To ascertain the feasibility of CTX newborn screening (NBS) we performed a study with deidentified Dutch dried blood spots using reagents and equipment that is frequently used in NBS laboratories. 20,076 deidentified newborn blood spots were subjected to flow-injection (FIA)-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS analysis to determine the concentration of GlcA-tetrol and calculate the GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA and t-THCA/GlcA-tetrol ratios. Results: Using UPLC-MS/MS analysis both GlcA-tetrol concentration and/or metabolite ratios GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA proved to be informative biomarkers; newborn DBS results did not overlap with those of the CTX patients. For FIA-MS/MS, GlcA-tetrol also was an excellent marker but when using the combination of the GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA and t-THCA/GlcA-tetrol ratios also did not yield any screen positives. Conclusion: Newborn screening for CTX using only metabolite ratios following the measurement of three CTX biomarkers is possible using either FIA-MS/MS or UPLC-MS/MS, which paves the way for introduction of CTX NBS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by ZonMw, project “Validation of a newborn screening method for Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis”, number 543002008. We would like to thank the Radboud Genome Technology Center (RGTC) for helping with DBS DNA purifications and subsequent whole-exome sequencing. RGTC is part of the Netherlands X-omics Initiative and partially funded by NWO (The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research; project 184.034.019). We are grateful to Travere Therapeutics for providing GlcA-tetrol and 2H6-GlcA-tetrol internal standard.
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