NEXMIF encephalopathy: an X-linked disorder with male and female phenotypic patterns

H Stamberger, TB Hammer, E Gardella, DRM Vlaskamp, B Bertelsen, S Mandelstam, I Lange, J Zhang, CT Myers, C Fenger, Z Afawi, EP Almanza Fuerte, DM Andrade, Y Balcik, B Ben Zeev, MF Bennett, SF Berkovic, B Isidor, Arjan Bouman, E BrilstraØL Busk, A Cairns, R Caumes, N Chatron, RC Dale, C de Geus, P Edery, D Gill, JB Granild-Jensen, L Gunderson, B Gunning, G Heimer, JR Helle, MS Hildebrand, G Hollingsworth, V Kharytonov, EW Klee, BPC Koeleman, DA (David) Koolen, C Korff, S Küry, G Lesca, D Lev, RJ Leventer, MT Mackay, EL Macke, M McEntagart, SS Mohammad, P Monin, M Montomoli, E Morava, S Moutton, AM Muir, E Parrini, P Procopis, E Ranza, L Reed, PS Reif, F Rosenow, M Rossi, LG Sadleir, T Sadoway, HJ Schelhaas, AL Schneider, K Shah, R Shalev, SM Sisodiya, T Smol, Ctrm Stumpel, Kyra Stuurman, JD Symonds, FT Mau-Them, N Verbeek, JS Verhoeven, G Wallace, K Yosovich, YA Zarate, A Zerem, SM Zuberi, R Guerrini, HC Mefford, C Patel, YH Zhang, RS Møller, IE Scheffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene NEXMIF (previously KIAA2022) are associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. We aimed to delineate the female and male phenotypic spectrum of NEXMIF encephalopathy. Methods: Through an international collaboration, we analyzed the phenotypes and genotypes of 87 patients with NEXMIF encephalopathy. Results: Sixty-three females and 24 males (46 new patients) with NEXMIF encephalopathy were studied, with 30 novel variants. Phenotypic features included developmental delay/ID in 86/87 (99%), seizures in 71/86 (83%) and multiple comorbidities. Generalized seizures predominated including myoclonic seizures and absence seizures (both 46/70, 66%), absence with eyelid myoclonia (17/70, 24%), and atonic seizures (30/70, 43%). Males had more severe developmental impairment; females had epilepsy more frequently, and varied from unaffected to severely affected. All NEXMIF pathogenic variants led to a premature stop codon or were deleterious structural variants. Most arose de novo, although X-linked segregation occurred for both sexes. Somatic mosaicism occurred in two males and a family with suspected parental mosaicism. Conclusion: NEXMIF encephalopathy is an X-linked, generalized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by myoclonic–atonic epilepsy overlapping with eyelid myoclonia with absence. Some patients have developmental encephalopathy without epilepsy. Males have more severe developmental impairment. NEXMIF encephalopathy arises due to loss-of-function variants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-373
Number of pages11
JournalGenetics in Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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