Nonverbal intelligence in young children with dysregulation: the Generation R Study

M Basten, J (Joyce) van der Ende, Henning Tiemeier, RR Althoff, Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Vincent Jaddoe, Bert Hofman, James joseph Hudziak, Frank Verhulst, Tonya White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8 %) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, children with CBCL-DP scored 8.3 points lower than children without problems (p < 0.001). The presence of ADHD or ASD did not account for the lower nonverbal intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1061-1070
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Research programs

  • EMC MM-04-54-08-A
  • EMC NIHES-01-64-02
  • EMC NIHES-03-30-02
  • EMC NIHES-04-55-01
  • EMC ONWAR-01-58-02

Cite this