Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999-2012

L Verhoef, J Hewitt, L Barclay, SM Ahmed, R Lake, AJ Hall, B Lopman, A Kroneman, H Vennema, J Vinje, Marion Koopmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

116 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final global profiles: foodborne transmission is attributed to 10% (range 9%-11%) of all genotype GII.4 outbreaks, 27% (25%-30%) of outbreaks caused by all other single genotypes, and 37% (24%-52%) of outbreaks caused by mixtures of GII.4 and other noroviruses. When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that approximate to 14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)592-599
Number of pages8
JournalEmerging Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Research programs

  • EMC MM-04-27-01

Cite this