Objective assessment of olfactory function using functional magnetic resonance imaging

Adolfo Toledano*, Susana Borromeo, Guillermo Luna, Elena Molina, Ana Beatriz Solana, Pablo Garcia-Polo, Juan Antonio Hernandez, Juan Alvarez-linera

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To show the results of a device that generates automated olfactory stimuli suitable for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments.Material and methods: Ten normal volunteers, 5 women and 5 men, were studied. The system allows the programming of several sequences, providing the capability to synchronise the onset of odour presentation with acquisition by a trigger signal of the MRI scanner. The olfactometer is a device that allows selection of the odour, the event paradigm, the time of stimuli and the odour concentration. The paradigm used during fMRI scanning consisted of 15-s blocks. The odorant event took 2 s with butanol, mint and coffee.Results: We observed olfactory activity in the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex (4%), amygdala (2.5%) and temporo-parietal cortex, especially in the areas related to emotional integration.Conclusions: The device has demonstrated its effectiveness in stimulating olfactory areas and its capacity to adapt to fMRI equipment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-285
Number of pages6
JournalActa Otorrinolaringologica Espanola
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes


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