Background: Most studies on advance care planning in Asia originate in high-income Asian countries. Indonesia is a middle-income Asian country characterized by its religious devoutness and strong family ties. This study aims to explore the perspectives and experiences of Indonesian healthcare professionals on advance care planning for cancer patients. Methods: Focus-group discussions were conducted in July and August 2019 and were analysed using thematic content analysis enhanced by dual coding and exploration of divergent views. Purposive sampling of physicians and nurses actively engaged in cancer care in a national cancer centre and a national general hospital. Results: We included 16 physicians and 16 nurses. These participants were open to the idea of advance care planning. We further identified four aspects of this planning that the participants considered to be important: 1) the family’s role in medical decision-making; 2) sensitivity to communication norms; 3) patients’ and families’ religious beliefs regarding the control and sanctity of life; and 4) the availability of a support system for advance care planning (healthcare professionals’ education and training, public education, resource allocation, and formal regulation). Participants believed that, although family hierarchical structure and certain religious beliefs may complicate patients’ engagement in advance care planning, a considerate approach to involving family and patients’ religious perspectives in advance care planning may actually facilitate their engagement in it. Conclusion: Indonesian healthcare professionals believed that, for culturally congruent advance care planning in Indonesia, it was essential to respect the cultural aspects of collectivism, communication norms, and patients’ religious beliefs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (Lembaga Pengelola Dana Pendidikan, LPDP) of the Indonesian Ministry of Finance [grant number 201711220412068]. The funding body had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
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