Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles

Akash Gupta, Debjit Roy, Rene de Koster, S Parhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
64 Downloads (Pure)


Container terminal performance is largely determined by its design decisions, which include the number and type of quay cranes, stack cranes, transport vehicles, vehicle travel path and stack layout. We investigate the orientation of the stack layout (parallel or perpendicular to the quayside) on the throughput time performance of the terminals. Previous studies in this area typically use deterministic optimisation, and a few studies use probabilistic travel times and simulation to analyse the effect of stack layout on terminal throughput times. In this research, we capture the stochasticity with an integrated queuing network modelling approach to analyse the performance of container terminals with parallel stack layout using automated lifting vehicles. Using this analytical model, we investigate 1008 parallel stack layout configurations on throughput times and determine the optimal stack layout configuration. We find that, assuming an identical width of the internal transport area, container terminals with parallel stack layout perform better (from 4–12% in terms of container throughput times) than terminals with a perpendicular stack layout.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3747-3765
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jan 2017

Research programs



Dive into the research topics of 'Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this