Optimized Preoperative Planning of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Patients by 3D Printing and Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study

Jette J Peek*, Wouter Bakhuis, Amir H Sadeghi*, Kevin M Veen, Arno A W Roest, Nico Bruining, Theo van Walsum, Mark G Hazekamp, Ad J J C Bogers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Downloads (Pure)



In complex double outlet right ventricle (DORV) patients, the optimal surgical approach may be difficult to assess based on conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. The aim of this study is to assess the added value of 3D printed and 3D Virtual Reality (VR) models of the heart used for surgical planning in DORV patients, supplementary to the gold standard 2D imaging modalities.


Five patients with different DORV-subtypes and high-quality CT scans were selected retrospectively. 3D prints and 3D-VR models were created. Twelve congenital cardiac surgeons and paediatric cardiologists, from three different hospitals, were shown 2D-CT first, after which they assessed the 3D print and 3D-VR models in random order. After each imaging method, a questionnaire was filled in on the visibility of essential structures and the surgical plan.


Spatial relationships were generally better visualized using 3D methods (3D printing/3D-VR) than in 2D. The feasibility of VSD patch closure could be determined best using 3D-VR reconstructions (3D-VR 92%, 3D print 66%, and US/CT 46%, P < 0.01). The percentage of proposed surgical plans corresponding to the performed surgical approach was 66% for plans based on US/CT, 78% for plans based on 3D printing, and 80% for plans based on 3D-VR visualization.


This study shows that both 3D printing and 3D-VR have additional value for cardiac surgeons and cardiologists over 2D imaging, because of better visualization of spatial relationships. As a result, the proposed surgical plans based on the 3D visualizations matched the actual performed surgery to a greater extent.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInterdisciplinary cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 May 2023

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimized Preoperative Planning of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Patients by 3D Printing and Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this