Osteopetrosis and related osteoclast disorders in adults: A review and knowledge gapsOn behalf of the European calcified tissue society and ERN BOND

Thomas Funck-Brentano*, M. Carola Zillikens, Gavin Clunie, Heide Siggelkow, Natasha M. Appelman-Dijkstra, Martine Cohen-Solal*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Osteopetrosis refers to a group of related rare bone diseases characterized by a high bone mass due to impaired bone resorption by osteoclasts. Despite the high bone mass, skeletal strength is compromised and the risk of fracture is high, particularly in the long bones. Osteopetrosis was classically categorized by inheritance pattern into autosomal recessive forms (ARO), which are severe and diagnosed within the first years of life, an intermediate form and an autosomal dominant (ADO) form; the latter with variable clinical severity and typically diagnosed during adolescence or in young adulthood. Subsequently, the AD form was shown to be a result of mutations in the gene CLCN7 encoding for the ClC-7 chloride channel). Traditionally, the diagnosis of osteopetrosis was made on radiograph appearance alone, but recent molecular and genetic advances have enabled a greater fidelity in classification of osteopetrosis subtypes. In the more severe ARO forms (e.g., malignant infantile osteopetrosis MIOP) typical clinical features have severe consequences and often result in death in early childhood. Major complications of ADO are atypical fractures with delay or failure of repair and challenge in orthopedic management. Bone marrow failure, dental abscess, deafness and visual loss are often underestimated and neglected in relation with lack of awareness and expertise. Accordingly, the care of adult patients with osteopetrosis requires a multidisciplinary approach ideally in specialized centers. Apart from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in certain infantile forms, the treatment of patients with osteopetrosis, has not been standardized and remains supportive. Further clinical studies are needed to improve our knowledge of the natural history, optimum management and impact of osteopetrosis on the lives of patients living with the disorder.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104936
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Medical Genetics
Volume69
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

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