Participant Nonnaiveté and the reproducibility of cognitive psychology

Rolf Zwaan*, Diane Pecher, Gabriele Paolacci, Samantha Bouwmeester, Peter Verkoeijen, Katinka Dijkstra, Rene Zeelenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


Many argue that there is a reproducibility crisis in psychology. We investigated nine well-known effects from the cognitive psychology literature—three each from the domains of perception/action, memory, and language, respectively—and found that they are highly reproducible. Not only can they be reproduced in online environments, but they also can be reproduced with nonnaïve participants with no reduction of effect size. Apparently, some cognitive tasks are so constraining that they encapsulate behavior from external influences, such as testing situation and prior recent experience with the experiment to yield highly robust effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1968-1972
Number of pages5
JournalPsychonomic Bulletin and Review
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
R.A. Zwaan developed the study concept. All authors contributed to the study design. Testing and data collection were performed by D. Pecher and S. Bouwmeester. D. Pecher and R.A. Zwaan performed the data analysis. R.A. Zwaan, D. Pecher, and G. Paolacci drafted the manuscript, and all other authors provided critical revisions. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for submission. We thank Frederick Verbruggen and Hal Pashler for helpful feedback on a previous version of this paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, The Author(s).

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