Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia (PROSA) in the Leuven University Hospitals: An Audit on Efficacy and Safety

Lotte Kerkhofs, Karel Allegaert*, Jaan Toelen, Koen Vanhonsebrouck

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


The hospital can be a stressful environment for a child. To address the increase in demands for pediatric procedural sedation, the PROSA team initiative was started in the Leuven University Hospitals in 2014. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of this project since its initiation. Demographic (age, sex) and clinical (procedure, sedation method) data were prospectively registered by the dedicated PROSA team. Anonymized data (11/2014–6/2021) were extracted to a database for analysis. Data on 5090 procedures were available. The median age was 4.8 years. The sedation was successful in 98% of patients, be it classified as ‘technically difficult’ in 3.3%. Of the 2% of failed procedures, 69% were due to inadequate sedation and 31% to logistic reasons unrelated to sedation (such as puncture problem, suboptimal bowel preparation). The overall adverse event incidence was 2% and occurred predominantly during gastro-coloscopy or bronchoscopy. Pethidine/midazolam was used in 81 cases, nitrous oxide in 10 cases. A saturation decrease with oxygen supply was the documented adverse event in 83 cases. There were no deaths reported. With the current training and implementation, PROSA is effective with a success rate of 98% and an adverse event rate of 2%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number776
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to acknowledge the PROSA team’s nurses for their many years of dedication, particularly Annemie Bangels, who initiated the PROSA project. We would also like to thank J. Lauweryns and F. De Buck, who worked as anesthesiology department staff members and contributed to the team’s success.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


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