Aims: We examined the associations of pericardial adipose tissue with cardiac structures and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Methods and results: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a population-based cohort study among 2892 children aged 10 years (2404 normal weight and 488 overweight/obese). Pericardial adipose tissue mass was estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and indexed on height3. Left ventricular mass (LVM) and left ventricular mass-to-volume ratio (LMVR) were estimated by cardiac MRI. Cardiovascular risk factors included android adipose tissue percentage obtained by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure and glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Adverse outcomes were defined as values above the 75 percentile. Median pericardial adipose tissue index was 3.6 (95% range 1.6-7.1) among normal weight and 4.7 (95% range 2.0-8.9) among overweight children. A one standard deviation (1 SD) higher pericardial adipose tissue index was associated with higher LMVR [0.06 standard deviation scores, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.09], increased odds of high android adipose tissue [odd ratio (OR) 2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.29], high insulin concentrations (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.30), an atherogenic lipid profile (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.33), and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.36-1.79). Pericardial adipose tissue index was not associated with LVM, blood pressure, and glucose concentrations. The associations showed largely the same directions but tended to be weaker among normal weight than among overweight children. Conclusion: Pericardial adipose tissue is associated with cardiac adaptations and cardiovascular risk factors already in childhood in both normal weight and overweight children.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Generation R Study is made possible by financial support from the Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Erasmus University Rotterdam, and The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. V.W.V.J. received support from the European Research Council Consolidator Grant (ERC-2014-CoG-648916). R.G. received funding from the Dutch Heart Foundation (grant number 2017T013) and the Dutch Diabetes Foundation (grant number 2017.81.002).
© 2020 The Author(s).