For decades, flucloxacillin has been used to treat methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Little is still known about its pharmacodynamics (PD). The present study aimed to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK)/PD index and the PD-index value minimally required for efficacy. MICs of 305 MSSA isolates were measured to determine the wild-type distribution. The PD of 8 S. aureus, 1 S. pyogenes, and 1 S. agalactiae isolates were evaluated in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. Two S. aureus isolates were used in a dose-fractionation study and a dose–response analysis was performed additionally in the in vivo model. Data were analyzed with a population PK and sigmoid maximum effect model. The end of the wild-type distribution was 1 mg/L. The percentage of time the unbound concentration was above MIC (%fT > MIC) was best correlated with efficacy. For S. aureus, median %fT > 0.25 × MIC required for 1-log reduction was 15%. The value for S. pyogenes was 10%fT > MIC and for S. agalactiae 22%fT > 0.25xMIC for a 1-log reduction. The effect of flucloxacillin reached a 2-log reduction of S. aureus at 20%fT > 0.25xMIC and also for S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae, a reduction was reached. These data may serve to optimize dosing regimens currently used in humans.
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