Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs: An evaluation of in vitro, in vivo methodologies and human studies

Jan Willem C. Alffenaar*, Jurriaan E.M. de Steenwinkel, Andreas H. Diacon, Ulrika S.H. Simonsson, Shashikant Srivastava, Sebastian G. Wicha

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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There has been an increased interest in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of anti-tuberculosis drugs. A better understanding of the relationship between drug exposure, antimicrobial kill and acquired drug resistance is essential not only to optimize current treatment regimens but also to design appropriately dosed regimens with new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Although the interest in PKPD has resulted in an increased number of studies, the actual bench-to-bedside translation is somewhat limited. One of the reasons could be differences in methodologies and outcome assessments that makes it difficult to compare the studies. In this paper we summarize most relevant in vitro, in vivo, in silico and human PKPD studies performed to optimize the drug dose and regimens for treatment of tuberculosis. The in vitro assessment focuses on MIC determination, static time-kill kinetics, and dynamic hollow fibre infection models to investigate acquisition of resistance and killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis populations in various metabolic states. The in vivo assessment focuses on the various animal models, routes of infection, PK at the site of infection, PD read-outs, biomarkers and differences in treatment outcome evaluation (relapse and death). For human PKPD we focus on early bactericidal activity studies and inclusion of PK and therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical trials. Modelling and simulation approaches that are used to evaluate and link the different data types will be discussed. We also describe the concept of different studies, study design, importance of uniform reporting including microbiological and clinical outcome assessments, and modelling approaches. We aim to encourage researchers to consider methods of assessing and reporting PKPD of anti-tuberculosis drugs when designing studies. This will improve appropriate comparison between studies and accelerate the progress in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1063453
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2022

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Copyright © 2022 Alffenaar, de Steenwinkel, Diacon, Simonsson, Srivastava and Wicha.


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