Background: Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is frequently used to improve future liver remnant volume (FLRV) and to reduce the risk of liver failure after major liver resection. Objective: This paper aimed to assess postoperative outcomes after PVE and resection for suspected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) in an international, multicentric cohort. Methods: Patients undergoing resection for suspected PHC across 20 centers worldwide, from the year 2000, were included. Liver failure, biliary leakage, and hemorrhage were classified according to the respective International Study Group of Liver Surgery criteria. Using propensity scoring, two equal cohorts were generated using matching parameters, i.e. age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, jaundice, type of biliary drainage, baseline FLRV, resection type, and portal vein resection. Results: A total of 1667 patients were treated for suspected PHC during the study period. In 298 patients who underwent preoperative PVE, the overall incidence of liver failure and 90-day mortality was 27% and 18%, respectively, as opposed to 14% and 12%, respectively, in patients without PVE (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005). After propensity score matching, 98 patients were enrolled in each cohort, resulting in similar baseline and operative characteristics. Liver failure was lower in the PVE group (8% vs. 36%, p < 0.001), as was biliary leakage (10% vs. 35%, p < 0.01), intra-abdominal abscesses (19% vs. 34%, p = 0.01), and 90-day mortality (7% vs. 18%, p = 0.03). Conclusion: PVE before major liver resection for PHC is associated with a lower incidence of liver failure, biliary leakage, abscess formation, and mortality. These results demonstrate the importance of PVE as an integral component in the surgical treatment of PHC.