Background: Body mass index (BMI) change after a lung cancer diagnosis has been associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survival. This study aimed to quantify the association based on a large-scale observational study. Methods: Included in the study were 7,547 patients with NSCLC with prospectively collected BMI data from Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates was used to estimate effect of time-varying postdiagnosis BMI change rate (% per month) on overall survival (OS), stratified by clinical subgroups. Spline analysis was conducted to quantify the nonlinear association. A Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis with a total of 3,495 patients further validated the association. Results: There was a J-shape association between postdiagnosis BMI change and OS among patients with NSCLC. Specifically, a moderate BMI decrease [0.5-2.0; HR = 2.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.25-2.67] and large BMI decrease (≥2.0; HR = 4.65; 95% CI, 4.15-5.20) were strongly associated with worse OS, whereas moderate weight gain (0.5-2.0) reduced the risk for mortality (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89) and large weight gain (≥2.0) slightly increased the risk of mortality without reaching statistical significance (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86-1.42).MR analyses supported the potential causal roles of postdiagnosis BMI change in survival. Conclusions: This study indicates that BMI change after diagnosis was associated with mortality risk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by NCI of the NIH under award number U01CA209414 to D.C. Christiani. This study was funded by U01CA209414 from NCI at the NIH to D.C. Christiani.
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