Pre-Operative Ocular Findings and Long-Term Follow-Up in a Large Cohort of Non-Syndromic Unicoronal Craniosynostosis

Parinaz Rostamzad*, Yasmin S. Esser, Emily T.C. Tan, Marjolein H.G. Dremmen, Mieke M. Pleumeekers, Sjoukje E. Loudon

*Corresponding author for this work

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(1) Background: 

Non-syndromic unicoronal craniosynostosis (UCS) is associated with a high prevalence of ocular anomalies. Currently, the etiology of this association remains obscure, however, it is presumed to be primarily attributed to their orbital malformations and/or secondary to craniofacial surgery. We assessed pre-operative ophthalmological examinations of non-syndromic UCS patients and compared them with their postoperative outcomes and long-term follow-up.

(2) Methods: 

A retrospective case series was conducted on medical records of patients with non-syndromic UCS at Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam. Ophthalmologic examinations were collected at different time periods: T1 (first visit), T2 (<1 year after cranioplasty), and T3 (long-term follow-up at last visit). The McNemar’s test was used for statistical analysis. 

(3) Results: 

A total of 101 patients were included, for whom examinations were available at T1 and T3. Patients had a mean age of 2.8 years (±2.7) and 9.5 (±4.9) at T1 and T3, respectively. At T1, 52 patients (51.5%) were diagnosed with strabismus, and 61 patients (60.4%) at T3. Vertical strabismus increased significantly from 23 patients (22.8%) at T1 to 36 patients (35.6%) at T3 (p = 0.011). Followed by astigmatism, which increased significantly from 38 (37.6%) at T1 to 59 (58.4%) patients at T3 (p = 0.001). T1 was available in 20 patients prior to fronto-orbital advancement (FOA), therefore, a sub-analysis was conducted on these patients, which was followed shortly after FOA at T2. Prior to FOA, strabismus was present in 11 patients (55.0%) and in 12 patients (60.0%) at T2. After FOA, strabismus worsened in two patients. 

(4) Conclusions: 

This study showed the high prevalence of ocular anomalies in patients with non-syndromic UCS before and after cranioplasty and at long-term follow-up. The findings of this study show that ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations are an important part of the optimal treatment of patients with non-syndromic UCS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6224
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number19
Early online date27 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

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Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.


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