Prediction of Early Recurrence After Surgery for Liver Tumor (ERASL): An International Validation of the ERASL Risk Models

Berend R. Beumer, Kosei Takagi, Bastiaan Vervoort, Stefan Buettner, Yuzo Umeda, Takahito Yagi, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Jan N.M. IJzermans*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to assess the performance of the pre- and postoperative early recurrence after surgery for liver tumor (ERASL) models at external validation. Prediction of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after resection is important for individualized surgical management. Recently, the preoperative (ERASL-pre) and postoperative (ERASL-post) risk models were proposed based on patients from Hong Kong. These models showed good performance although they have not been validated to date by an independent research group. Methods: This international cohort study included 279 patients from the Netherlands and 392 patients from Japan. The patients underwent first-time resection and showed a diagnosis of HCC on pathology. Performance was assessed according to discrimination (concordance [C] statistic) and calibration (correspondence between observed and predicted risk) with recalibration in a Weibull model. Results: The discriminatory power of both models was lower in the Netherlands than in Japan (C statistic, 0.57 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.52–0.62] vs 0.69 [95% CI 0.65–0.73] for the ERASL-pre model and 0.62 [95% CI 0.57–0.67] vs 0.70 [95% CI 0.66–0.74] for the ERASL-post model), whereas their prognostic profiles were similar. The predictions of the ERASL models were systematically too optimistic for both cohorts. Recalibrated ERASL models improved local applicability for both cohorts. Conclusions: The discrimination of ERASL models was poorer for the Western patients than for the Japanese patients, who showed good performance. Recalibration of the models was performed, which improved the accuracy of predictions. However, in general, a model that explains the East–West difference or one tailored to Western patients still needs to be developed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8211-8220
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Volume28
Issue number13
Early online date7 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was financed by Jorvi Hospital and the Finnish lmtiture of Occupatwnal Health. The technical assistance of 7iina Makinen is gratefully acknowledged.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

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