Background: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in childhood, but there are no studies evaluating the persistence of these associations into adolescence, a period of relevant changes in endocrine-dependent organ systems and rapid increases in lean and fat mass. We examined the associations of prenatal POP exposures with body mass index (BMI) from age 4 to 18 years, and with other CM risk markers in adolescence. Methods: We analysed 379 children from the Spanish INMA-Menorca birth cohort study with measured cord blood POP concentrations. We calculated BMI z-scores at ages 4, 6, 11, 14 and 18 years using the WHO growth reference. Body fat % was measured at 11 and 18 years and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and blood pressure (BP) at 11, 14 and 18 years. We measured CM biomarkers in fasting blood collected at age 14 years and calculated a CM-risk score as the sum of the sex-, and age-specific z-scores for waist circumference, mean arterial BP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting blood triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (n = 217). Generalised estimating equations and multivariate linear regression models assessed the associations with repeated and single time-point measures, respectively. Results: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) exposure in the third tertile, compared to the first tertile, was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.47) and WHtR z-score (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.51). A continuous increase in HCB was associated with an elevated body fat % (β per 10-fold increase = 4.21; 95% CI: 0.51, 7.92), systolic BP (β = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.64) and diastolic BP z-score (β = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.62) across all ages, and with higher CM-risk score (β = 1.59; 95% CI: 0.02, 3.18) and lipid biomarkers (total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)) at 14 years. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p’-DDT) exposure was non-monotonically associated with BMI and systolic BP. p,p’-DDE and Σ-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (sum of congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) were not associated with adiposity or BP. p,p’-DDT exposure was associated with an increased CM-risk score, and ΣPCBs concentrations with LDL-C in all adolescents and with total cholesterol only in girls (p-sex interaction = 0.05). Conclusion: This first longitudinal study from 4 to 18 years suggests that the previously reported POP associations with child BMI persist later in adolescence and that prenatal POP exposures are associated with major risk factors for adult CM syndrome.