Preserved muscle oxidative metabolic phenotype in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer cachexia

Celine M. Op den Kamp, Harry R. Gosker, Suzanne Lagarde, Daniel Y. Tan, Frank J. Snepvangers, Anne Marie C. Dingemans, Ramon C.J. Langen, Annemie M.W.J. Schols*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
10 Downloads (Pure)



Cachexia augments cancer-related mortality and has devastating effects on quality of life. Pre-clinical studies indicate that systemic inflammation-induced loss of muscle oxidative phenotype (OXPHEN) stimulates cancer-induced muscle wasting. The aim of the current proof of concept study is to validate the presence of muscle OXPHEN loss in newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer, especially in those with cachexia. 


Quadriceps muscle biopsies of comprehensively phenotyped pre-cachectic (n = 10) and cachectic (n = 16) patients with non-small cell lung cancer prior to treatment were compared with healthy age-matched controls (n = 22). OXPHEN was determined by assessing muscle fibre type distribution (immunohistochemistry), enzyme activity (spectrophotometry), and protein expression levels of mitochondrial complexes (western blot) as well as transcript levels of (regulatory) oxidative genes (quantitative real-time PCR). Additionally, muscle fibre cross-sectional area (immunohistochemistry) and systemic inflammation (multiplex analysis) were assessed. 


Muscle fibre cross-sectional area was smaller, and plasma levels of interleukin 6 were significantly higher in cachectic patients compared with non-cachectic patients and healthy controls. No differences in muscle fibre type distribution or oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were observed between the groups. Mitochondrial protein expression and gene expression levels of their regulators were also not different. 


Muscle OXPHEN is preserved in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer and therefore not a primary trigger of cachexia in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-173
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Early online date15 Apr 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders


Dive into the research topics of 'Preserved muscle oxidative metabolic phenotype in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer cachexia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this