Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as premature ovarian failure or premature menopause, is defined as cessation of menstruation before the expected age of menopause. Potential etiologies for POI can be divided into genetic, autoimmune, and iatrogenic categories. This review will try to summarize the genetic basis of POI focusing on recent data that are available using newer genetic techniques such as genome-wide association studies, whole-exome sequencing (WES), or next-generation sequencing techniques. By using these techniques, many genes have arisen that play some role in the pathophysiology of POI. Some of them have been replicated in other studies; however, the majority has not been proven yet to be unequivocally causative through functional validation studies. Elucidating the genetic and molecular basis of POI is of paramount importance not only in understanding ovarian physiology but also in providing genetic counseling and fertility guidance. Once additional variants are detected, it might become possible to predict the age of (premature) menopause in women at risk for POI. Women having certain perturbations of POI can be offered the option of oocyte cryopreservation, with later thawing and use in assisted reproductive technology at an appropriate age.