Facilitated by communication technology (i.e., smartphones), many employees adopt a work-family integration strategy to cope with work and home demands simultaneously. Taking boundary theory as a starting point, this quantitative diary study examines the potential impact of private smartphone use at work—i.e., boundary-crossing behavior—on employee well-being. We hypothesized that private smartphone use would be positively associated with the subjective experience of being interrupted, especially when smartphone use was appraised negatively (vs. positively). Additionally, we predicted that these interruptions by private smartphone use would be positively related to end-of-day exhaustion, and that this relationship would be stronger for employees who value work over family (high vs. low work centrality). The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 67 employees from various occupations who completed a short daily questionnaire for four successive workdays (N = 237 data points). The results of multilevel analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
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