Profiling of humoral immune responses to norovirus in children across Europe

Nele Villabruna, Ray W. Izquierdo-Lara, Claudia M.E. Schapendonk, Erwin de Bruin, Felicity Chandler, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Brenda M. Westerhuis, Janko van Beek, Louise Sigfrid, Carlo Giaquinto, Herman Goossens, Julia A. Bielicki, Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Pieter L.A. Fraaij, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Miranda de Graaf*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


Norovirus is a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. More than 30 genotypes circulate in humans, some are common, and others are only sporadically detected. Here, we investigated whether serology can be used to determine which genotypes infect children. We established a multiplex protein microarray with structural and non-structural norovirus antigens that allowed simultaneous antibody testing against 30 human GI and GII genotypes. Antibody responses of sera obtained from 287 children aged < 1 month to 5.5 years were profiled. Most specific IgG and IgA responses were directed against the GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6 capsid genotypes. While we detected antibody responses against rare genotypes, we found no evidence for wide circulation. We also detected genotype-specific antibodies against the non-structural proteins p48 and p22 in sera of older children. In this study, we show the age-dependent antibody responses to a broad range of norovirus capsid and polymerase genotypes, which will aid in the development of vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14275
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the submitting laboratories of the sequences from the NoroNet database. This work was supported by the Erasmus MC Grant mRACE and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Grant VEO (Grant No. 874735), the ZonMW TOP Project (91213058), and the PREPARE Europe (EU FP7 Grant No. 602525).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


Dive into the research topics of 'Profiling of humoral immune responses to norovirus in children across Europe'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this