Prognostic Factors in Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: Analysis of a Nationwide Molecularly/Immunohistochemically Confirmed Cohort of 57 Cases

Tess Tomassen*, Yvonne M.H. Versleijen-Jonkers, Melissa H.S. Hillebrandt-Roeffen, Patricia H.J. Van Cleef, Thijs van Dalen, Marije E. Weidema, Ingrid M.E. Desar, Uta Flucke, Joost M. van Gorp

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare vascular sarcoma with variable aggressive clinical behavior. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate prognostic factors based on clinicopathologic findings in a molecularly/immunohistochemically confirmed nationwide multicenter cohort of 57 EHE cases. Patients had unifocal disease (n = 29), multifocal disease (n = 5), lymph node metastasis (n = 8) and/or distant metastasis (n = 15) at the time of diagnosis. The overall survival rate was 71.4% at 1 year and 50.7% at 5 years. Survival did not correlate with sex, age or histopathological parameters. No survival differences were observed between multifocal and metastatic disease, suggesting that multifocality represents early metastases and treatment options are limited in comparison to unifocal disease. In unifocal tumors, survival could be predicted using the risk stratification model of Shibayama et al., dividing the cases into low- (n = 4), intermediate- (n = 15) and high- (n = 3) risk groups. No clinical or histopathological parameters were associated with progressive unifocal disease course. Lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in 14.0% of the cases and were mainly associated with tumor localization in the head and neck area, proposing lymph node dissection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the aggressive behavior of EHE, emphasize the prognostic value of a previously described risk stratification model and may provide new insights regarding tumor focality, therapeutic strategies and prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3304
JournalCancers
Volume15
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes

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Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.

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