Prognostic Implications of Fractional Flow Reserve After Coronary Stenting: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Doyeon Hwang, Bon Kwon Koo, Jinlong Zhang, Jiesuck Park, Seokhun Yang, Minsang Kim, Jun Pil Yun, Joo Myung Lee, Chang Wook Nam, Eun Seok Shin, Joon Hyung Doh, Shao Liang Chen, Tsunekazu Kakuta, Gabor G. Toth, Zsolt Piroth, Nils P. Johnson, Nico H.J. Pijls, Abdul Hakeem, Barry F. Uretsky, Yohei HokamaNobuhiro Tanaka, Hong Seok Lim, Tsuyoshi Ito, Akiko Matsuo, Lorenzo Azzalini, Massoud A. Leesar, Tara Neleman, Nicolas M. van Mieghem, Roberto Diletti, Joost Daemen, Damien Collison, Carlos Collet, Bernard De Bruyne

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Importance: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is generally considered to reflect residual disease. Yet the clinical relevance of post-PCI FFR after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate the clinical relevance of post-PCI FFR measurement after DES implantation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for relevant published articles from inception to June 18, 2022. Study Selection: Published articles that reported post-PCI FFR after DES implantation and its association with clinical outcomes were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Patient-level data were collected from the corresponding authors of 17 cohorts using a standardized spreadsheet. Meta-estimates for primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed per patient and using mixed-effects Cox proportional hazard regression with registry identifiers included as a random effect. All processes followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was target vessel failure (TVF) at 2 years, a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (TVMI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The secondary outcome was a composite of cardiac death or TVMI at 2 years. Results: Of 2268 articles identified, 29 studies met selection criteria. Of these, 28 articles from 17 cohorts provided data, including a total of 5277 patients with 5869 vessels who underwent FFR measurement after DES implantation. Mean (SD) age was 64.4 (10.1) years and 4141 patients (78.5%) were men. Median (IQR) post-PCI FFR was 0.89 (0.84-0.94) and 690 vessels (11.8%) had a post-PCI FFR of 0.80 or below. The cumulative incidence of TVF was 340 patients (7.2%), with cardiac death or TVMI occurring in 111 patients (2.4%) at 2 years. Lower post-PCI FFR significantly increased the risk of TVF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per 0.01 FFR decrease, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05; P < .001). The risk of cardiac death or MI also increased inversely with post-PCI FFR (adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07, P = .049). These associations were consistent regardless of age, sex, the presence of hypertension or diabetes, and clinical diagnosis. Conclusions and Relevance: Reduced FFR after DES implantation was common and associated with the risks of TVF and of cardiac death or TVMI. These results indicate the prognostic value of post-PCI physiologic assessment after DES implantation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2232842
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sept 2022

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