OBJECTIVE-Heart failure is common in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and early detection of individuals at risk may offer opportunities for prevention. We aimed to explore 1) prospective associations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in a non-heart failure range with changes in markers of left ventricular (LV) function and 2) possible effect modification by type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Echocardiographic measurements were performed at baseline (2000-2001) and follow-up (2007-2009), together with standardized physical examinations and BNP measurements on 300 individuals (mean age 66 years, 32% with type 2 diabetes) of the longitudinal Hoorn Study. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of baseline BNP (<100 pg/mL) in individuals without prevalent heart failure at baseline with changes in LV mass index, LV ej RESULTS-In all individuals, higher BNP was associated with 8-year increases in left atrial volume index. Higher BNP was also associated with increasing LV mass index and E/e'. These associations were significantly stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with the nonsignificant associations in individuals without type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS-This 8-year follow-up study shows that higher BNP levels in a non-heart failure range were associated with an increased LV mass and deteriorated LV diastolic function, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This implies that the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes should be taken into account if BNP levels are used to assess future heart failure risk.