Objectives: To investigate whether serial prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may guide the utility of repeat targeted (TBx) and systematic biopsy (SBx) when monitoring men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) at 1-year of active surveillance (AS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively included 111 consecutive men with low-risk (International Society of Urological Pathology [ISUP] Grade 1) PCa, who received protocolled repeat MRI with or without TBx and repeat SBx at 1-year of AS. TBx was performed in Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥3 lesions (MRI-positive men). Upgrading defined as ISUP Grade ≥2 PCa (I), Grade ≥2 with cribriform growth/intraductal carcinoma PCa (II), and Grade ≥3 PCa (III) was investigated. Upgrading detected by TBx only (not by SBx) and SBx only (not by TBx) was investigated in MRI-positive and -negative men, and related to radiological progression on MRI (Prostate Cancer Radiological Estimation of Change in Sequential Evaluation [PRECISE] score). Results: Overall upgrading (I) was 32% (35/111). Upgrading in MRI-positive and -negative men was 48% (30/63) and 10% (5/48) (P < 0.001), respectively. In MRI-positive men, there was upgrading in 23% (seven of 30) by TBx only and in 33% (10/30) by SBx only. Radiological progression (PRECISE score 4–5) in MRI-positive men was seen in 27% (17/63). Upgrading (I) occurred in 41% (seven of 17) of these MRI-positive men, while this was 50% (23/46) in MRI-positive men without radiological progression (PRECISE score 1–3) (P = 0.534). Overall upgrading (II) was 15% (17/111). Upgrading in MRI-positive and -negative men was 22% (14/63) and 6% (three of 48) (P = 0.021), respectively. In MRI-positive men, there was upgrading in three of 14 by TBx only and in seven of 14 by SBx only. Overall upgrading (III) occurred in 5% (five of 111). Upgrading in MRI-positive and -negative men was 6% (four of 63) and 2% (one of 48) (P = 0.283), respectively. In MRI-positive men, there was upgrading in one of four by TBx only and in two of four by SBx only. Conclusion: Upgrading is significantly lower in MRI-negative compared to MRI-positive men with low-risk PCa at 1-year of AS. In serial MRI-negative men, the added value of repeat SBx at 1-year surveillance is limited and should be balanced individually against the harms. In serial MRI-positive men, the added value of repeat SBx is substantial. Based on this cohort, SBx is recommended to be performed in combination with TBx in all MRI-positive men at 1-year of AS, also when there is no radiological progression.
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