Multiple sclerosis is a disabling inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects young adults. There is a great need for biomarkers, which could elucidate pathology as well as provide prognosis of disease progression and therapy response in multiple sclerosis. Rapidly evolving, technology driven applications such as mass spectrometry based proteomics are currently being developed for this purpose. In this review, we will outline the current status of the field and detail a number of the bottlenecks as well as future prospects of this type of biomarker research. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.