Pursuing the Real Vancomycin Clearance during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Is There Adequate Target Attainment?

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Introduction: Vancomycin is used in intensive care unit (ICU) patients for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. The vancomycin pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index is a ratio of the area under the concentration to the minimum inhibitory concentration ≥400-600 h∗mg/L. This target can generally be achieved by a plasma concentration of 20-25 mg/L. Together with the pathophysiological alterations and pharmacokinetic variability associated with critical illness, the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may complicate the attainment of adequate vancomycin concentrations. The primary objective was the prevalence of attainment of vancomycin concentrations 20-25 mg/L after 24 h in adult ICU patients receiving CRRT. Secondary outcomes were to evaluate target attainment at days 2 and 3 and to calculate vancomycin clearance (CL) by CRRT and residual diuresis. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study in adult ICU patients on CRRT, which received at least 24 h continuous infusion of vancomycin. Between May 2020 and February 2021, daily vancomycin residual blood gas and dialysate samples were collected from 20 patients, every 6 h and if possible vancomycin urine samples. Vancomycin was analysed with an immunoassay method. The CL by CRRT was calculated by a different approach correcting for the downtime and providing insight into the degree of filter patency. Results: The proportion of patients with vancomycin concentrations <20 mg/L was 50% 24 h after starting vancomycin (n = 10). No differences were observed in patient characteristics. The target vancomycin concentration 20-25 mg/L was only achieved in 30% of the patients. On days 2 and 3, despite the use of TDM and albeit in lower percentages, sub- and supratherapeutic levels were still observed. Taking downtime and filter patency into account resulted in lower vancomycin CL. Conclusions: 50% of the studied ICU patients on CRRT showed subtherapeutic vancomycin concentrations 24 h after starting therapy. The results reveal that optimization of vancomycin dosage during CRRT therapy is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)652-659
Number of pages8
JournalBlood Purification
Issue number7-8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

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