Little is known about psychological distress and quality of life (QoL) in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), a rare hereditary disorder. We aimed to assess QoL and psychological distress in PJS patients compared to the general population, and to evaluate determinants of QoL and psychological distress in a cross-sectional study. PJS patients completed a questionnaire on QoL, psychological distress, and illness perceptions. The questionnaire was returned by 52 patients (85% response rate, 56% females, median age 44.5 years). PJS patients reported similar anxiety (p = 0.57) and depression (p = 0.61) scores as the general population. They reported a lower general health perception (p = 0.003), more limitations due to emotional problems (p = 0.045) and a lower mental well-being (p = 0.036). Strong beliefs in negative consequences of PJS on daily life, a relapsing course of the disease, strong emotional reactions to PJS, and female gender were major determinants for a lower QoL. PJS patients experience a similar level of psychological distress as the general population, but a poorer general health perception, more limitations due to emotional problems, and a poorer mental QoL. Illness perceptions and female gender were major predictors for this lower QoL. These results may help to recognize PJS patients who might benefit from psychological support.