Quantitative CT imaging analysis to predict pathology features in patients with a Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation

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Background: Risk for infection and potential malignant degeneration are the most common arguments for resecting asymptomatic Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations (CPAM). We aimed to investigate if CT- imaging characteristics can be used to predict histopathological features, by using an objective quantitative CT scoring method. Methods: Archival CPAM tissue samples were histologically re-assessed and patients who had a pre-operative volumetric CT-scan were included. Lung disease was quantified using the newly-developed congenital lung abnormality quantification(CLAQ) scoring method and obtained percentages were used to predict histopathological signs of inflammation and presence of mucinous proliferation (MP). Because MP is presumed a precursor for mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) this method was also used to compare CT-scans of patients with AIS to those with only CPAM. Results: Thirty-three CPAM patients were included of which 13(39%) had histological signs of inflammation and 8(24%) had a MP. Patients with inflammation had a significantly smaller lesion (14% vs 38%) while those with MP had more extensive disease (54%vs17%). Patients with AIS had a significantly smaller lesion compared to CPAM patients (5%vs29%). Significant predictors for inflammation were smaller lesion size and percentage hypodensity within lesions while a larger lesion size and percentage parenchymal hyperdensity (solid lung tissue components) were predictors for MP as well as AIS. Conclusions: Smaller CPAM lesions may be more susceptible to inflammation while larger lesions may be associated with the presence of MP. Parenchymal hyperdensity is found as a predictor for MP as well as AIS and should therefore elicit more extensive gross sampling. Level of evidence: Level III.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1567-1572
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

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