BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) have a higher risk of developing CRC than the general population, and studies have shown that they are more likely to undergo CRC screening. We assessed the overall and race-and ethnicity-specific effects of a family history of CRC on screening. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to estimate overall and race-and ethnicity-specific odds ratios (ORs) for the association between family history of CRC and CRC screening. RESULTS: The unweighted and weighted sample sizes were 23,837 and 8,851,003, respectively. Individuals with a family history of CRC were more likely to participate in any form of screening (OR, 2.3; 95% confidence limit [CL], 1.7, 3.1) and in colonoscopy screening (OR, 2.7; 95% CL, 2.2, 3.4) than those without a family history, but this association varied among racial and ethnic groups. The magnitude of the association between family history and colonoscopy screening was highest among Asians (OR, 6.1; 95% CL, 3.1, 11.9), lowest among Hispanics (OR, 1.4; 95% CL, 0.67, 2.8), and comparable between non-Hispanic whites (OR, 3.1; 95% CL, 2.6, 3.8) and non-Hispanic blacks (OR 2.6; 95% CL, 1.2, 5.7) (P for interaction < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The effects of family history of CRC on participation in screening vary among racial and ethnic groups, and have the lowest effects on Hispanics, compared with other groups. Consequently, interventions to promote CRC screening among Hispanics with a family history should be considered.