Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a highly prevalent endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Objective: This proof-of-concept study evaluated clinical efficacy and safety of the neurokinin 3 (NK3) receptor antagonist fezolinetant in PCOS. Methods: This was a phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study (EudraCT 2014-004409-34). The study was conducted at 5 European clinical centers. Women with PCOS participated in the study. Interventions included fezolinetant 60 or 180 mg/day or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was change in total testosterone. Gonadotropins, ovarian hormones, safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Seventy-three women were randomly assigned, and 64 participants completed the study. Adjusted mean (SE) changes in total testosterone from baseline to week 12 for fezolinetant 180 and 60 mg/day were-0.80 (0.13) and-0.39 (0.12) nmol/L vs-0.05 (0.10) nmol/L with placebo (P <.001 and P <.05, respectively). Adjusted mean (SE) changes from baseline in luteinizing hormone (LH) for fezolinetant 180 and 60 mg/d were-10.17 (1.28) and-8.21 (1.18) vs-3.16 (1.04) IU/L with placebo (P <.001 and P =.002); corresponding changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were-1.46 (0.32) and-0.92 (0.30) vs-0.57 (0.26) IU/L (P =.03 and P =.38), underpinning a dose-dependent decrease in the LH-to-FSH ratio vs placebo (P <.001). Circulating levels of progesterone and estradiol did not change significantly vs placebo (P >.10). Fezolinetant was well tolerated. Conclusion: Fezolinetant had a sustained effect to suppress hyperandrogenism and reduce the LH-to-FSH ratio in women with PCOS.
Bibliographical noteFinancial Support and Role of the Sponsor: This study was sponsored by OGEDA SA (Gosselies, Belgium), a wholly owned subsidiary of Astellas Pharma Inc. Employees of OGEDA SA (Gosselies,
Belgium) were involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Employees of Astellas Pharma
US Inc, were involved in the analysis and interpretation of the data;
preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to
submit the manuscript for publication.
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society.