Reference Values of the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) from a General Population Sample in Italy

Ugne Krenz*, Sven Greving, on behalf of the CENTER-TBI Participants and Investigators, Marina Zeldovich, Juanita Haagsma, Suzanne Polinder, Nicole von Steinbüchel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the lives of the individuals concerned and their relatives negatively in many dimensions. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a comprehensive and complex concept that can assess one’s satisfaction with a broad range of areas of life and health. The Quality of Life after Traumatic Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire is a TBI-specific measure for HRQoL which is used in research and health services worldwide. When evaluating self-reported HRQoL after TBI, reference values from a general population are helpful to perform clinically relevant evaluations and decisions about the condition of an affected person by comparing the patient scores with reference values. Despite the widespread use of the QOLIBRI, reference values have until now only been available for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to validate the QOLIBRI for the general population in Italy and to provide reference values. An adapted form of the QOLIBRI was administered to 3298 Italians from a healthy general population using an online survey. Their scores were compared with those of 298 individuals post-TBI recruited within the international longitudinal observational cohort CENTER-TBI study in Italian hospitals, who completed the original questionnaire. The psychometric characteristics and the measurement invariance of the QOLIBRI were assessed. A regression analysis was performed to identify predictors relevant for HRQoL in the general population. Reference values were provided using percentiles. Measurement invariance analysis showed that the QOLIBRI captures the same HRQoL constructs in an Italian general population and Italian TBI sample from the observational Center-TBI study. Higher age, higher education and the absence of a chronic health condition were associated with higher QOLIBRI scores, suggesting better HRQoL. Reference values were provided for a general Italian population adjusted for age, sex, education and presence of chronic health conditions. We recommend using these for a better interpretation of the QOLIBRI score in clinical practice and research in Italy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number491
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
CENTER-TBI was supported by the European Union 7th Framework program (EC grant 602150). Additional funding was obtained from the Hannelore Kohl Stiftung (Bonn, Germany), from OneMind (Napa, CA, USA), from Integra LifeSciences Corporation (Princeton, NJ, USA) and from Neurotrauma Sciences (Alpharetta, GA, USA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


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