Refinement of Variant Selection for the LDL Cholesterol Genetic Risk Score in the Diagnosis of the Polygenic Form of Clinical Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Replication in Samples from 6 Countries

M Futema, S Shah, JA Cooper, K Li, RA Whittall, M Sharifi, O Goldberg, E Drogari, V Mollaki, A Wiegman, J Defesche, MN D'Agostino, A D'Angelo, P Rubba, G Fortunato, M Walus-Miarka, RA Hegele, MA Bamimore, R Durst, E LeitersdorfMonique Mulder, Jeanine Roeters van Lennep, E.J.G. Sijbrands, JC Whittaker, PJ Talmud, SE Humphries

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in 1 of 3 genes. In the 60% of patients who are mutation negative, we have recently shown that the clinical phenotype can be associated with an accumulation of common small-effect LDL cholesterol (LDL-C)-raising alleles by use of a 12-single nucleotide polymorphism (12-SNP) score. The aims of the study were to improve the selection of SNPs and replicate the results in additional samples. METHODS: We used ROC curves to determine the optimum number of LDL-C SNPs. For replication analysis, we genotyped patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH from 6 countries for 6 LDL-C-associated alleles. We compared the weighted SNP score among patients with no confirmed mutation (FH/M-), those with amutation(FH/M+), and controls from a UK population sample (WHII). RESULTS: Increasing the number of SNPs to 33 did not improve the ability of the score to discriminate between FH/M- and controls, whereas sequential removal of SNPs with smaller effects/lower frequency showed that a weighted score of 6 SNPs performed as well as the 12-SNP score. Metaanalysis of the weighted 6-SNP score, on the basis of polymorphisms in CELSR2 (cadherin, EGF LAG 7-pass G-type receptor 2), APOB (apolipoprotein B), ABCG5/8 [ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 5/8], LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor), and APOE (apolipoprotein E) loci, in the independent FH/M- cohorts showed a consistently higher score in comparison to the WHII population (P < 2.2 x 10(-16)). Modeling in individuals with a 6-SNP score in the top three-fourths of the score distribution indicated a >95% likelihood of a polygenic explanation of their increased LDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: A 6-SNP LDL-C score consistently distinguishes FH/M- patients from healthy individuals. The hypercholesterolemia in 88% of mutation-negative patients is likely to have a polygenic basis. (C) 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)231-238
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Chemistry
Volume61
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Research programs

  • EMC COEUR-09
  • EMC COEUR-09-39-01

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