Reliability and validity of children’s advertising exposure measures

Suzanna Opree*, Moniek Buijzen, Eva van Reijmersdal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: First, three levels of content specificity for assessing children’s exposure to advertising were distinguished as follows: exposure to the medium, exposure to broad content and exposure to specific (i.e. commercial) content. Second, using longitudinal data from 165 children between 8 and 11 years old, the test-retest reliability and content validity of survey measures from all three levels were examined. Design/methodology/approach: Due to societal concerns about the effects of advertising on children’s well-being, research into this topic is expanding. To enhance knowledge accumulation and bring uniformity to the field, a validated standard survey measure of advertising exposure is needed. The aim of this study is to provide such measures for television and internet advertising. Findings: The findings suggest that all measures provided solid estimates for children’s television and internet advertising exposure. Yet, due to minor differences in reliability and validity, it may be concluded that television advertising exposure can best be measured by asking children how often they watch certain popular (commercial) television networks, either weighting or not weighting for advertising density. Internet advertising exposure can best be measured by asking children how often they use the internet or how often they visit certain popular websites, weighting for advertising density. Originality/value: The current measures for children’s advertising exposure through traditional media can easily be adapted to fit new media.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)660-674
Number of pages15
JournalYoung Consumers
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Suzanna Opree, Moniek Buijzen and Eva van Reijmersdal.

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