Restore and protect motivations following shame

IE Hooge, M Zeelenberg, S M Breugelmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

119 Citations (Scopus)


Shame has been found to promote both approach and withdrawal behaviours. Shame theories have not been able to explain how shame can promote such contrasting behaviours. In the present article, the authors provide an explanation for this. Shame was hypothesised to activate approach behaviours to restore the threatened self, and in situations when this is not possible or too risky, to activate withdrawal behaviours to protect the self from further damage. Five studies with different shame inductions and different dependent measures confirmed our predictions. We therefore showed that different behavioural responses to shame can be understood in terms of restore and protect motives. Implications for theory and behavioural research on shame are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-127
Number of pages17
JournalCognition & Emotion
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010


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