Ribavirin Inhibits In Vitro Hepatitis E Virus Replication through Depletion of Cellular GTP Pools and Is Moderately Synergistic with Alpha Interferon

Y Debing, SU Emerson, YJ Wang, Qiuwei Pan, J Balzarini, K Dallmeier, J Neyts

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Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis that results in high mortality in pregnant women and may establish chronic infections in immunocompromised patients. We demonstrate for the first time that alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and ribavirin inhibit in vitro HEV replication in both a subgenomic replicon and an infectious culture system based on a genotype 3 strain. IFN-alpha showed a moderate but significant synergism with ribavirin. These findings corroborate the reported clinical effectiveness of both drugs. In addition, the antiviral activity of ribavirin against wild-type genotype 1, 2, and 3 strains was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, the in vitro activity of ribavirin depends on depletion of intracellular GTP pools, which is evident from the facts that (i) other GTP-depleting agents (5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide [EICAR] and mycophenolic acid) inhibit viral replication, (ii) exogenously added guanosine reverses the antiviral effects, and (iii) a strong correlation (R-2 = 0.9998) exists between the antiviral activity and GTP depletion of ribavirin and other GTP-depleting agents.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)267-273
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy
Volume58
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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