Right of association and new business entry: country-level evidence from the market sector

Pankaj C. Patel*, Cornelius A. Rietveld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Labor market institutions (LMIs) could enable new firm entry by lowering burdens to attracting and retaining human capital or restrict new firm entry by increasing concerns of additional demands on ventures facing liabilities of newness and smallness. In this study, we focus on the LMI of the right of association, and whether its relationship with new business entry depends on the vertical ordering of bargaining (represented in the centralization of collective bargaining) or the horizontal synchronization of wage-setting (represented in the coordination of wage-setting). In a panel of 44 countries covering the period 2005–2019, we find that the right of association in the market sector is positively associated with new business entry; however, with increasing centralization of collective bargaining, the association becomes negative. Coordination of wage-setting does not significantly affect the relationship between the right of association and new business entry. The results are robust to accounting for both serial correlation and cross-sectional correlation in the panel regressions and carry implications for policymakers regarding the effects of LMIs on new business creation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1161-1177
Number of pages17
JournalSmall Business Economics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

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© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


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