RNA-based urinary assays for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Olga M. Pijpers, Joep J. de Jong, Tahlita C.M. Zuiverloon, Joost L. Boormans*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the recent literature on RNA-based molecular urine assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). RECENT FINDINGS: Articles were eligible for inclusion if performance metrics sensitivity, specificity, and negative-predictive value (NPV) were reported or could be calculated. Only prospective studies published between 2020-2022 were included. Five out of fourteen studies addressed the primary diagnostic setting; the proportion of gross hematuria patients in all study populations was >50%. Only one study reported performance metrics within a microscopic hematuria subgroup. This study evaluated Xpert Bladder and reported a sensitivity: 73%, specificity: 84%, NPV: 99%, and PPV: 12%. Ten studies assessed test performance during surveillance for NMIBC. For the detection of high-grade (HG) and high-risk (HR) NMIBC, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV varied between 78-100%, 64-89%, 97.0-99.7%, and 9.2-39%. SUMMARY: Multiple RNA-based urine assays have been investigated for the detection of urothelial cancer in the primary or surveillance setting. However, studies included within this review have important limitations, hampering the interpretation of study results. As such, performance metrics should be interpreted with caution and further research is required to evaluate the clinical impact of RNA-based urine assays in daily practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-530
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Urology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

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