The catheterisation laboratory today combines diagnosis and therapeutics, through various imaging modalities and a prolific list of interventional tools, led by balloons and stents. In this review, we focus primarily on advances in image-based coronary interventions. The X-ray images that are the primary modality for diagnosis and interventions are combined with novel tools for visualisation and display, including multiimaging co-registration modalities with three- and four-dimensional presentations. Interpretation of the physiologic significance of coronary stenosis based on prior angiographic images is being explored and implemented. Major efforts to reduce X-ray exposure to the staff and the patients, using computer-based algorithms for image processing, and novel methods to limit the radiation spread are being explored. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for better patient care requires attention to universal methods for sharing and combining large data sets and for allowing interpretation and analysis of large cohorts of patients. Barriers to data sharing using integrated and universal protocols should be overcome to allow these methods to become widely applicable. Robotic catheterisation takes the physician away from the ionising radiation spot, enables coronary angioplasty and stenting without compromising safety, and may allow increased precision. Remote coronary procedures over the internet, that have been explored in virtual and animal studies and already applied to patients in a small pilot study, open possibilities for sharing experience across the world without travelling. Application of those technologies to neurovascular, and particularly stroke interventions, may be very timely in view of the need for expert neuro-interventionalists located mostly in central areas.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© Europa Digital & Publishing 2021. All rights reserved.