Robustness Recipes for Minimax Robust Optimization in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

SR Voort, Steven Water, Z Perko, Ben Heijmen, D Lathouwers, Mischa Hoogeman

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63 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: We aimed to derive a "robustness recipe" giving the range robustness (RR) and setup robustness (SR) settings (ie, the error values) that ensure adequate clinical target volume (CTV) coverage in oropharyngeal cancer patients for given gaussian distributions of systematic setup, random setup, and range errors (characterized by standard deviations of Sigma, sigma, and rho, respectively) when used in minimax worst-case robust intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization. Methods and Materials: For the analysis, contoured computed tomography (CT) scans of 9 unilateral and 9 bilateral patients were used. An IMPT plan was considered robust if, for at least 98% of the simulated fractionated treatments, 98% of the CTV received 95% or more of the prescribed dose. For fast assessment of the CTV coverage for given error distributions (ie, different values of Sigma, sigma, and rho), polynomial chaos methods were used. Separate recipes were derived for the unilateral and bilateral cases using one patient from each group, and all 18 patients were included in the validation of the recipes. Results: Treatment plans for bilateral cases are intrinsically more robust than those for unilateral cases. The required RR only depends on the r, and SR can be fitted by second-order polynomials in S and s. The formulas for the derived robustness recipes are as follows: Unilateral patients need SR = -0.15 Sigma(2) + 0.27 sigma(2) + 1.85 Sigma - 0.06 sigma + 1.22 and RR = 3% for rho = 1% and rho = 2%; bilateral patients need SR = -0.07 Sigma(2) + 0.19 sigma(2) + 1.34 Sigma - 0.07 sigma + 1.17 and RR = 3% and 4% for rho = 1% and 2%, respectively. For the recipe validation, 2 plans were generated for each of the 18 patients corresponding to Sigma = sigma = 1.5 mm and rho = 0% and 2%. Thirty-four plans had adequate CTV coverage in 98% or more of the simulated fractionated treatments; the remaining 2 had adequate coverage in 97.8% and 97.9%. Conclusions: Robustness recipes were derived that can be used in minimax robust optimization of IMPT treatment plans to ensure adequate CTV coverage for oropharyngeal cancer patients. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)163-170
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Research programs

  • EMC MM-03-32-04

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